CSA 2010 is intended to provide the identification of carrier safety issues in specific areas. It then seeks to provide multiple levels of action to address those issues. It will provide new means and methodology for the measurement, evaluation, and intervention with regard to carrier safety.
I. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SAFESTAT AND CSA 2010:
a. While Safestat indicates that a carrier has general safety issues, CSA 2010 seeks to identify the specific area in which there is a problem;
b. Unlike Safestat that groups safety problems together into one score, CSA 2010 is intended to identify specific areas that are problematic so that they can be addressed in a surgical manner;
c. While Safestat uses only out-of-service violations and selected moving violations from inspections, CSA 2010 uses all safety-based inspection violation;
d. CSA 2010 introduces a riskbased weighting of violations, giving greater impact to violations determined to have a larger impact on crash risk;
e. Under CSA 2010, a carrier’s safety rating will be based upon the safety data analysis, in contrast to Safestat which serves only to prioritize carriers for compliance review which are then determinant of a safety rating;
f. Finally, CSA 2010 provides a system to assess drivers in addition to carriers, unlike Safestat which assesses only carriers.
II. METHOD OF MEASUREMENT
CSA 2010 will measure carrier safety by the Safety Measurement System (SMS). This system assembles and weighs data, then determines a carriers “percentile” ranking within its “peers.”
DATA-It will utilize data collected at roadside safety inspections and state-reported commercial motor vehicle crash records. This data will then be weighted based upon severity and timing.
SEVERITY-SMS contains a schedule of potential roadside safety violations. Each potential violation is assigned a number of points that reflect their association with crash occurrence and crash consequences.
TIME-SMS also assigns weight based upon when the violation or crash occurred. More recent events have greater weight than those that are more remote. Carrier records cover a twenty-four (24) month period. Events within six months of today are given a time weighting of 3, as opposed to which occurred 7-12 months ago (weighing of 2), or 13-24 months ago (a weighting of 1). Driver records cover a thirty-six (36) month period. Events within 12 months of today are given a time weighting of 3, as opposed to which occurred 13-24 months ago (weighing of 2), or 25-36 months ago (a weighting of 1).
SCORE-A carrier or driver’s score in a particular safety area is calculated by totaling the time and severity weighted violations in a particular area. This total is then, “normalized” (averaged) based upon the area being evaluated. Vehicle violations are “normalized” (averaged) by the number of vehicle inspections. Driver oriented violations are “normalized” by the number of driver inspections. Some particular areas of safety scores are “normalized” based upon a carrier’s size. These areas are unsafe driving, drug and alcohol violations, and crash indicators. “Carrier size” is determined by the average number of power units of a carrier over the last 18 months as reported on its MCS 150 or 151. This number is the total of the reported units 18 months ago, 6 months ago, and today divided by 3.
PEER GROUP-After receiving a score in a particular area, a carrier and a driver will be assigned a “percentile” based upon its “peer group” to compare measures of entities with similar levels of exposure. This percentile will be a number from 1 (best) to 100 (worst) upon which a potential need for FMCSA action will be determined. Peer groups are determined by either the number of inspections or the number of power units depending on the category being assessed. For categories based upon inspection violations, there is a minimum number of inspections with applicable violations required for a percentile to be assigned. No percentile will be assigned to a carrier if it has not had an inspection with a violation in the previous 23 months. However, some categories based upon inspections also require that the most recent inspection not have a violation in that category. What constitutes a carrier or a driver’s peer group depends upon the particular area being evaluated. Again, it varies by area from number of inspections in which there were violations to number of units.
FREQUENCY OF SCORING-Each month, a carrier and a driver’s score will be updated. A carrier’s score will be based upon two (2) years of data. A driver’s is based upon three (3) years of data.
III. AREAS OF MEASUREMENT
Scores will be calculated in seven safety behavior areas pursuant to the BASICS program. BASICS is an acronym for Behavioral Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (it’s the government). There are seven BASICS scores—six categories of inspection data plus crash data. The inspection categories are comprised of four related to driver behavior and two to vehicle integrity.
UNSAFE DRIVING-Dangerous operation of a commercial motor vehicle is scored in this area based upon traffic violations noted on roadside inspection reports or crash reports.
FATIGUED DRIVING-Hours-of service violations or fatigue noted in roadside inspection or crash reports in which fatigued driving was a contributing factor.
DRIVER FITNESS-Lack of training, necessary experience, or medical approval. This is derived from inspection violations for failure to have a cdl or medical documentation, crash reports citing medical reasons or lack of experience as a contributing factor, or violations found in on- or off-site inspections for DQ file requirements or use of unqualified drivers.
DRUG AND ALCOHOL-This score is based upon roadside drug or alcohol violations, crash reports citing intoxication or impairment as a factor, or lack of an appropriate program.
VEHICLE MAINTENANCE-This is comprised of roadside mechanical defect violations, crash reports citing mechanical failure as a contributing factor, and violations found in on- or off-site inspections of maintenance records and repairs records.
CARGO SECUREMENT-These points arise from roadside inspection violations relating to load securement, cargo retention, and hazmat handling. It also comes from crash reports citing shifting loads, dropped cargo, or unsafe hazmat handling as a contributing factor.
CRASH INDICATOR-This is the history or pattern of crash involvement from law enforcement crash reports and on-site investigation reviews of recorded crashes.
REPORTING OF MEASUREMENTS
As set forth above, a score will be calculated in each of the seven area. The score will be the total of the violations, weighted for time and severity. The score will then be “normalized ” either by the number of total inspections or average number of units, depending on the particular BASIC area.
A percentile ranking will then be generated within the “peer group”. Again, what is considered a “peer group” depends upon the specific BASIC area being evaluated.
The score and the percentile for each BASIC area will then be posted to a website, available to an “entity of interest”, including shippers, brokers, and insurers. Percentile scores above an intervention threshold will be highlighted in yellow, while a percentile of 97 or higher will be highlighted in red. Scores are revised on monthly basis.
Please view Part 2 for Implementation and Evaluation Strategies